What are Chilblains?

Chilblains (also known as Pernio) is painful skin swelling that develop after the skin has a prolonged exposure to unusually cold, damp weather. It is an inflammation of small blood vessels. It affects the body's extremities the most, such as the hands and feet which are exposed during cold weather. In severe cases there might be blisters.

Usually the skin lesions improve within 3 weeks. If the skin lesions persist, there can be risk of underlying autoimmune diseases. Patients should keep the skin warm.

What is Dermatomyositis?

Dermatomyositis is a chronic inflammation of skin and muscle. Patients may have violet colored skin rash over sun exposed areas, including the face, upper back and hands. Patients may also suffer from proximal muscle weakness or pain. It is considered as an autoimmune disease, but some can be related to internal malignancies. Skin or muscle biopsy may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.
What is Pemphigus vulgaris?

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune severe skin blistering disease. Patients may have blisters over skin or mucosal surfaces which can rupture easily or being infected. Skin biopsy is usualy required for diagnosis and to identify different subtype of pemphigus. Treatment includes wound care and systemic immunosuppresants.